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Most of Laguna Mountain’s projects have involved compliance with CEQA and local regulations but also include Federal work such as cellular site evaluations, work on local Native American reservations, and fire safety work. Examples of projects conducted by Laguna Mountain are provided below.

Project: Princess Street/Spindrift Drive Utility Undergrounding Project, La Jolla, California

Lead Agency: City of San Diego

Laguna Mountain worked as a prime consultant to the City of San Diego Underground Utility Conversion group to provide a cultural resource monitoring program to ensure potential impacts to buried cultural resources did not occur during trenching for utility conversion. The proposed project was to convert existing overhead electric facilities to below ground on Spindrift Drive and Princess Street from Paseo Dorado to Torrey Pines Road.  The route consisted of approximately1,987 feet of 24 inch wide trench with an average depth of 4 feet. 

The project area was entirely within previously recorded archaeological site CA-SDI-39/17372.  Human burials and intact archaeological features had been previously encountered in the project area with one of those located under the existing street while other remains were discovered in the yards of existing residences.  Due to the very high potential for discoveries on this particular project, a research design and data recovery plan was conducted prior to construction to address discoveries and allow work to proceed as smoothly as possible when additional discoveries were made.  The second phase of this project, which includes sorting and analysis, is still ongoing.  The material recovered during excavation and screening will be analyzed in relationship to the research design and incorporated into a final data recovery report. 

Project: Felicita Park Trail Rehabilitation, Escondido, California

Lead Agency: County of San Diego, California Department of Parks and Recreation

Laguna Mountain Environmental, Inc. (Laguna Mountain) worked as a prime consultant conducting an archaeological survey and a testing and evaluation program for a proposed trail improvement project within Felicita County Park in northern San Diego County. The goal of the effort was to identify and evaluate cultural resources within the area of potential effect (APE).   The APE for the project was defined as the entire 53-acre county park, which had been previously recorded as CA-SDI-570.  The proposed project was a Land and Water Conservation Fund Grant for trail improvements. The proposed project included Federal monies and was subject to Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA), since it is an “undertaking” as defined by 36 CFR 800.2 (0) and by 1992 amendments to Section 301 (7) of the NHPA [16 U.S.C. 470w (7)]. Cultural resource work was conducted in accordance with the NHPA, the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA), and the County of San Diego implementing regulations and guidelines including the County of San Diego Resource Protection Ordinance (RPO). 

The project area was resurveyed and the three previously recorded loci were identified along with five additional loci (D, E, F, G, and H).  In addition, an adjacent site, CA-SDI-8463, appeared to extend within the park boundaries.  Subsurface testing was conducted at CA-SDI-570 with two goals.  The first goal was to establish the significance and National Register eligibility of the site, and the second goal was to determine the relationship between subsurface portions of the site area and proposed project effects. Testing included general recordation of milling features throughout the APE along with excavation of 29 shovel test pits (STPs) and 2, 1 x 1 m excavation units.  The subsurface testing resulted in the recovery of more than 1,040 artifacts.  These included a variety of cultural material that met the data needs established in the research design. Subsurface testing also indicated the presence of significant subsurface deposits within portions of the area proposed for direct impacts.

Though previous loci within site CA-SDI-570 had been previously evaluated for nomination to the National Register or the California Register and for significance under the County RPO, the whole site consisting of all eight loci had not. Testing results from the current project show that data from site CA-SDI-570 met the requirements of the research design.   Site CA-SDI-570 was recommended as eligible for nomination to the National Register and the California Register for its research potential. Proposed plans indicated that portions of site CA-SDI-570 are within the direct and indirect impact area for trail improvements associated with the proposed undertaking.  An avoidance and monitoring program were recommended to result in a determination of no adverse effect.

Project: Bailey Meadows Hazardous Fuels Reduction Project, Palomar Mountain, California

Lead Agency: Natural Resource Conservation Service and County of San Diego

Laguna Mountain Environmental, Inc. (Laguna Mountain) conducted an archaeological survey of approximately 430.2 acres on Palomar Mountain for the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). The proposed project was for the removal of dead and dying trees within the residential lots and along the roads. The goal of the Bailey Meadow Fuel Reduction Project’s cultural resource investigations was to identify the cultural resources within the APE to ensure that adverse effects to historic properties would not result from the project.   The archaeological survey resulted in the identification of 24 sites and 3 isolated artifacts.

To ensure the cultural resources within the APE were not adversely effected by the project, a cultural resource program was developed.  Cultural resources identified within sensitive areas were flagged to ensure avoidance during work in the area.  Mechanical clearing, haul routes, and excavation of erosion control features did occur within site areas.  All work in the vicinity of cultural resources was monitored by a qualified forester trained to deal with cultural resource issues to ensure that there were no impacts. 

Tree cutting and removal did not adversely affect the cultural resources within the APE. Ground disturbing activity related to tree and brush removal did occur in site areas. Implementation of the proposed program resulted in no adverse effect and no impacts to cultural resources.

Project: Pijnenburg Lot Split Survey, Test and Evaluation, Barrett Junction, California

Lead Agency: County of San Diego

Laguna Mountain Environmental, Inc. conducted an archaeological survey of a 76.4-acre parcel for a proposed lot split.  Two cultural resources sites were identified: CA-SDI-17136 (mining prospect) and CA-SDI-17137 (historic foundations and trash scatter). The project could not be redesigned to avoid these two resources, so a testing and evaluation program was implemented to determine if they qualified as eligible for nomination to the California Register of Historical Resources (California Register) or as significant under the County of San Diego Resource Protection Ordinance (RPO). 

Site CA-SDI-17136 consisted of two mining prospects without associated cultural material. Based on the period of mining activity in the region, these prospects may be of historic age, but they lack any associated cultural material or archival documentation.  Site CA-SDI-17136 was not recommended as eligible for California Register or County RPO status based on lack of association and information potential. 

Site CA-SDI-17137 consisted of the foundations and associated remains of two residential structures and associated buildings and features.  These remains appear to be on the margin of historic age and the associated surface material was all of recent age. Subsurface testing indicated that CA-SDI-17137 lacked historic age cultural material. CA-SDI-17137 did not qualify as eligible for California Register or the County RPO based on it’s recent age, lack of significant association, and lack of historic age artifacts. Because CA-SDI-17136 and CA-SDI-17137 are not eligible for the California Register or significant under the County RPO, no further work was recommended.

Project:  Carroll Canyon Road Extension Project, Sorrento Valley, California

Lead Agency: City of San Diego

Laguna Mountain Environmental, Inc. (Laguna Mountain) served as a cultural resources subconsultant on the Carroll Canyon Road Extension Project.  Laguna Mountain conducted an archaeological survey, historic resource evaluation, in addition to a testing and significance evaluation program of a proposed extension of Carroll Canyon Road from Scranton Road to Sorrento Valley Road in the City of San Diego.  The area of potential effect (APE) covers approximately 35-acres in the Sorrento Valley area of San Diego.

The survey phase of the project was conducted in  2002, and Native American participation and consultation was part of the survey effort.  Most previously recorded resources within the project area had been destroyed by prior construction or had been previously collected.  Historic-period landscaping was present but structures were no longer standing.  The historic landscaping was recorded, but based on a title search and additional historic research, it was not recommended as eligible for National Register of Historic Places (National Register) or California Register of Historical Properties (California Register).

The survey did relocate a prehistoric shell midden within the project area.  The prehistoric shell midden had been previously recommended as “significant” but had not been formally evaluated.  A Phase II testing program was conducted to provide additional data on the remaining resource.  Scheduling of testing was adjusted to meet biological constraints.   In order to meet tight project deadlines while working within biological constraints, Laguna Mountain expedited testing and report preparation to meet a November 2002 deadline. Testing identified a variety of prehistoric material including stone and shell beads and other artifacts from a substantial prehistoric habitation site.  The site was determined to be eligible for the California Register and the project was adjusted to avoid resource impacts to the extent possible.  A data recovery plan was developed in consultation with City staff in December 2002 and January 2003 to provide for mitigation of project impacts.  The project alignment was adjusted in July 2004 and 2005, and the reports have been revised to reflect these changes and impact revisions. 

Project:  Impink TPM Project, Jamul, California

Lead Agency:  San Diego County

Laguna Mountain Environmental, Inc. conducted an archaeological survey of a 13.62-acre parcel for the proposed lot split. Two archaeological sites were identified during the survey: CA-SDI-6738 Loci A through F (bedrock milling stations) and CA-SDI-17140 (lithic scatter). CA-SDI-6738 Loci A, C, E, and F and CA-SDI-17140 could not be avoided through redesign so a testing and evaluation program was implemented to evaluate the sites for eligibility to be included under the California Register of Historical Resources (California Register) or San Diego County’s Resource Protection Ordinance (RPO).

Testing included mapping, surface collection of artifacts, recordation of bedrock milling features, in addition to the excavation of 28 STPs and 2 test units. Subsurface deposits were identified at CA-SDI-6738 Locus F and CA-SDI-17140.

Deposits at CA-SDI-6738 Locus F were less than 30 cm in depth. Although a metate fragment and hammerstone were recovered, the remainder of the cultural material at this Locus was limited to a small amount of debitage. Site CA-SDI-6738 Loci A (partial), C, E and F did not meet the criteria for the California Register or the County RPO. No further work was recommended to address these resources.

CA-SDI-17140 appeared to be a Late Prehistoric habitation site that contained a variety of cultural material, including flaked and ground stone tools, debitage, animal bone, charcoal, fire-affected rock, obsidian, and Tizon Brown Ware pottery. Subsurface deposits reached a depth of approximately 80 cm, although bioturbation and previous disturbance were present. The cultural material at CA-SDI-17140 was of sufficient quantity and variability to warrant its recommendation as eligible for nomination to the California Register for its research potential. CA-SDI-17140 lacked qualities that would make this resource eligible for significance under the County RPO and was not RPO significant. Preservation of CA-SDI-17140 in an open space easement was not feasible given the adjacent land use and small site area within the project. Data recovery was recommended to mitigate impacts to CA-SDI-17140 and is currently pending approval.

Project: Cingular Wireless Cellular Surveys in Los Angeles and Orange Counties

Lead Agency: Federal Communications Commission

Laguna Mountain prepared reports for 5 cellular sites in Los Angeles and Orange counties.  The cellular antennas were to be placed on existing structures.  Site research included both effects to the archaeological and the historic visual environment.  These investigations were conducted for compliance with Section 106 of NHPA. 



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Page last updated on May 31, 2010